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反洗錢金融行動特別工作組《反恐怖融資特別建議》

 

字體大小:大  小  来源:[]    日期:2011-08-02  

 
 
 

Special Recommendations on Terrorist Financing

 

 

 

背景:20011029日至30日,反洗錢金融行動特別工作組在美國華盛頓特區召開了關于恐怖主義融資的特別大會。在這次特別大會上,FATF認識到采取行動打擊恐怖主義融資的極端重要性,FATF同意以下八條建議同FATF反洗錢的四十條建議一起,建立起監測、預防和禁止爲恐怖主義行動籌集資金的基本網絡。這八條建議就稱爲FATF反恐融資八條建議,包括:1. 批准和執行聯合國有關決議;2. 將恐怖主義融資及習慣的洗錢定爲犯罪;3. 凍結和沒收與恐怖主義有關的資産;4. 舉報與恐怖主義有關的可疑交易;5. 國際合作;6. 替代性彙款;7. 電子轉賬;8. 非盈利組織。

 

 

 

Ratification and implementation of UN instruments

 

Each country should take immediate steps to ratify and to implement fully the 1999 United Nations International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism.

 

Countries should also immediately implement the United Nations resolutions relating to the prevention and suppression of the financing of terrorist acts, particularly United Nations Security Council Resolution 1373[1].

 

Criminalizing the financing of terrorism and associated money laundering

 

Each country should criminalize the financing of terrorism, terrorist acts and terrorist organizations. Countries should ensure that such offences are designated as money laundering predicate offences.

 

Freezing and confiscating terrorist assets

 

Each country should implement measures to freeze without delay funds or other assets of terrorists, those who finance terrorism and terrorist organizations in accordance with the United Nations resolutions relating to the prevention and suppression of the financing of terrorist acts.

 

Each country should also adopt and implement measures, including legislative ones, which would enable the competent authorities to seize and confiscate property that is the proceeds of, or used in, or intended or allocated for use in, the financing of terrorism, terrorist acts or terrorist organizations.

 

Reporting suspicious transactions related to terrorism

 

If financial institutions, or other businesses or entities subject to anti-money laundering obligation, suspect or have reasonable grounds to suspect that funds are linked or related to, or are to be used for terrorism, terrorist acts or by terrorist organizations, they should be required to report promptly their suspicions to the competent authorities.

 

International co-operation

 

Each country should afford another country, on the basis of a treaty, arrangement or other mechanism for mutual legal assistance or information exchange, the greatest possible measure of assistance in connection with criminal, civil enforcement, and administrative investigations, inquiries and proceedings relating to the financing of terrorism, terrorist acts and terrorist organizations.

 

Countries should also take all possible measures to ensure that they do not provide safe havens for individuals charged with the financing of terrorism, terrorism, terrorist acts or terrorist organizations, and should have procedures in place to extradite, where possible, such individuals.

 

Alternative remittance[2]

 

Each country should take measures to ensure that persons or legal entities, including agents, that provide a service for the transmission of money or value, including transmission through an informal money or value transfer system or network, should be licensed or registered and subject to all the FATF Recommendations that apply to banks and non-bank financial institutions. Each country should ensure that persons or legal entities that carry out this service illegally are subject to administrative, civil or criminal sanctions.

 

Wire transfers

 

Countries should take measures to require financial institutions, institutions, including money remitters, to include accurate and meaningful originator information (name, address and account number) on funds transfers and related messages that are sent, and the information should remain with the transfer or related message through the payment chain.

 

Countries should take measures to ensure that financial institutions, including money remitters, conduct enhanced scrutiny of and monitor for suspicious activity funds transfers which do not contain complete originator information (name, address and account number).

 

Non-profit organizations[3]

 

Countries should review the adequacy of laws and regulations that relate to entities that can be abused for the financing of terrorism. Non-profit organizations are particularly vulnerable, and countries should ensure that they cannot be misused:

 

by terrorist organizations posing as legitimate entities;

 

to exploit legitimate entities as conduits[4] for terrorist financing, including for the purpose of escaping asset freezing measures; and

 

to conceal or obscure the clandestine diversion of funds intended for legitimate purposes to terrorist organizations.

 

 

 

9.  Cash Couriers[5]

 

 

 

 

 

Countries should have measures in place to detect the physical cross-border transportation of currency and bearer negotiable instruments, including a declaration

 

system or other disclosure obligation.

 

Countries should ensure that their competent authorities have the legal authority to stop or restrain currency or bearer negotiable instruments that are suspected to be related to terrorist financing or money laundering, or that are falsely declared or disclosed.

 

Countries should ensure that effective, proportionate and dissuasive sanctions are

 

available to deal with persons who make false declaration(s) or disclosure(s). In cases where the currency or bearer negotiable instruments are related to terrorist financing or money laundering, countries should also adopt measures, including legislative ones consistent with Recommendation 3 and Special Recommendation III, which would enable the confiscation of such currency or instruments.

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[1]  2002928日,聯合國安理會一致通過第1373號決議,要求各國緊急合作,防止和制止恐怖主義行爲,對支持恐怖主義的國家,安理會將進行制裁。

 

[2] alternative remittance:替代性彙款。這是一種在受監管的體系之外運行的,提供資金或價值的轉移服務的網絡體系或機制。這些監管外的體系通常在特定的地理區域內運作。這些體系通常包括:hawala, hundi, fei-chien等,並且采用黑市彙率。

 

[3] Non-frofit organization:非盈利組織。该建议是为了帮助当局来保护那些为了慈善、宗教、文化、教育、社会或友爱的目的,或为了开展其他类型的“良好事业”而筹集或支付资金的非盈利组织,使之不被恐怖主义融资所利用。法律和实践认可的非盈利组织的合法形式主要有:协会、基金会、筹资委员会、公社服务组织、代表公共利益的社团、有限公司和公共慈善机构。

 

[4] conduit[5kCndit] 渠道,管道

 

[5] courier[ 5kuriE ] 信使